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12 November 1720

Norwegian Vice Admiral Peter Wessel Tordenskiold was killed in a duel at Hildesheim in Germany. The occasion was a quarrel in which Tordenskiold accused Jacob Axel Stael von Holstein, a colonel who had been in Swedish service, to trick people for... Read more ...

12 November 1720

Tordenskiold was killed
Norwegian Vice Admiral Peter Wessel Tordenskiold was killed in a duel at Hildesheim in Germany. The occasion was a quarrel in which Tordenskiold accused Jacob Axel Stael von Holstein, a colonel who had been in Swedish service, to trick people for money. The dispute ended in scuffles and Tordenskiold beat up the ten years older Staël von Holstein. Stael tried to pull the sword, but was unable to get it out of its sheath. Tordenskiold used it instead to beat him up. The injured von Holstein demanded redress through a duel.

At five o'clock in the morning of 12 November Tordenskiold was summoned by his second, named Münnichhausen – whom Tordenskiold had never met. It was predetermined that the duel would be fought with guns, but Münnichhausen told Tordenskiold that the duel was cancelled because von Holstein had traveled to Hamburg. Münnichhausen convinced Tordenskiold that for formal reasons he had to show up at the agreed site of the duel instead, but that there was no need to carry a gun.

When they arrived von Holstein was present and ready to fight. Since Tordenskiold had arrived without pistols, it was decided to fight with sword instead. Stael von Holstein was better armed with a long ‘karolinerverge’ while Tordenskiold just had a small parade sword. During the duel Tordenskiold was hit by a powerful thrust that went in under his arm and hit the spine. Mortally wounded, he died after a few minutes, just 30 years old.


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The Model 1860 Kammerlader Rifle

Category: Norwegian kammerlader
Published: 18 September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Views: 18503

Kammerlader

Model 1860 Army kammerlader, converted to metallic cartridge after Lund's system some time after 1867.

The 18 bore kammerlader rifles were continuously improved from the time the first model was adopted in 1842. In 1860 a new model was adopted. This model had several radical changes: The most important being the reduction of the calibre from 18 bore to 4''' (linjer, an old Norwegian measuring unit). Since roundballs were no longer used it served no purpose to designate the calibre in bullets per pound. 4''' equals 11.77 mm, and compared to the 18 bore rifles the calibre was reduced with 5 mm. The internals of the barrel were also changed. While the 18 bore kammerlader rifles had Krupp rifling the Model 1860 had hexagonal Whithworth rilfing. Another new feature was rifled chambers. The 4''' kammerlader is a lighter and slender firearm compared to the old models.

Both civilian and military 4''' kammerlader rifles. Civilian kammerlader rifles for the shooting societies were made from parts that were intended for the military rifles. The shooting society kammerlader rifles are distinguished by the steel buttplate and barrel bands. The Army versions had brass bands and buttplate.

Find out more!
You can learn more about the kammerlader rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Kammerlader

Model 1860/67 Naval kammerlader
Landmark conversion.

The new kammerlader rifles had a short active service, and were soon converted to fire metallic cartridges. When the metallic cartridge was adopted along with the Remington rolling block rifle in 1867, most of the Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were converted to the new calibre. Two conversion systems were used. The Army used the system of Jacob Lund and the Navy relied on the system of Jens Landmark. The conversions are called Lund's rifles and Landmark's rifles. The new calibre was decided to be 12.17 mm, and the new cartridge got the official designation '12 mm Remington' (also known as 12.17x44, 12x42, 12.17x42, 12.7x44 and similar). You can read more about this cartridge in the article about the Remington rolling block.

Models

The following 4''' models are known:

  • M/1860 4''' Army three bander (long)
  • M/1860 4''' Army two bander (short)
  • M/1860 4''' three bander (long) for shooting societies
  • M/1860 4''' two bander (short) for shooting societies
  • M/1860 4''' Navy two bander
  • M/1862 4''' artillery carbine
  • M/1865 4''' cavalry carbine

Kammerlader

Model 1860/67 Army kammerlader
Lund's conversion. Notice the
rimfire breech block.

Today it is extremely rare to find an unconverted 4''' kammerlader rifle. If you find one, it is probably one of the shooting society models. The 4''' kammerlader rifles were very accurate in it time, and they performed very well in a comparativ shooting competition in Belgium in 1861.

Bayonets

The short Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were equipped with yataghan style sabre bayonets similar to that of the Remington rifle. It was also basically similar to the 18 bore short rifle bayonet. The long rifles was fitted with a socket bayonet.