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28 November 1520

Ferdinand Magellan sailed through the Strait of Magellan off South America, and thus became the first European to see the Pacific. He found the entrance on October 21, but the passage was a maze of bays, inlets and fjords. At night, when the ships... Read more ...

28 November 1520

Ferdinand Magellan found the Pacific
Ferdinand Magellan sailed through the Strait of Magellan off South America, and thus became the first European to see the Pacific. He found the entrance on October 21, but the passage was a maze of bays, inlets and fjords. At night, when the ships lay at anchor, they could see flickering lights from the land, and the land was called Tierra del Fuego. The lights came from the fires of the natives. It took 38 days to get through the strait. Today this dangerous strait is called Strait of Magellan.

When they had gone through the exhausting labyrinth, a sea opened before them. It was good weather, the sea lay still and shiny, and they called it therefore the Pacific. But only three of the expedition's four remaining ships continued the journey. The best ship in the fleet, that had been sent to investigate a fjord, never came back. The ship had turned and set sail towards Spain. Ferdinand Magellan sailed through the Strait of Magellan off South America, and thus became the first European to see the Pacific. He found the entrance on October 21, but the passage was a maze of bays, inlets and fjords. At night, when the ships lay at anchor, they could see flickering lights from the land, and the land was called Tierra del Fuego. The lights came from the fires of the natives. It took 38 days to get through the strait. Today this dangerous strait is called Strait of Magellan.

When they had gone through the exhausting labyrinth, a sea opened before them. It was good weather, the sea lay still and shiny, and they called it therefore the Pacific. But only three of the expedition's four remaining ships continued the journey. The best ship in the fleet, that had been sent to investigate a fjord, never came back. The ship had turned and set sail towards Spain.


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    The Model 1860 Kammerlader Rifle

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 18 September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Views: 23836
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    Kammerlader

    Model 1860 Army kammerlader, converted to metallic cartridge after Lund's system some time after 1867.

    The 18 bore kammerlader rifles were continuously improved from the time the first model was adopted in 1842. In 1860 a new model was adopted. This model had several radical changes: The most important being the reduction of the calibre from 18 bore to 4''' (linjer, an old Norwegian measuring unit). Since roundballs were no longer used it served no purpose to designate the calibre in bullets per pound. 4''' equals 11.77 mm, and compared to the 18 bore rifles the calibre was reduced with 5 mm. The internals of the barrel were also changed. While the 18 bore kammerlader rifles had Krupp rifling the Model 1860 had hexagonal Whithworth rilfing. Another new feature was rifled chambers. The 4''' kammerlader is a lighter and slender firearm compared to the old models.

    Both civilian and military 4''' kammerlader rifles. Civilian kammerlader rifles for the shooting societies were made from parts that were intended for the military rifles. The shooting society kammerlader rifles are distinguished by the steel buttplate and barrel bands. The Army versions had brass bands and buttplate.

    Find out more!
    You can learn more about the kammerlader rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Kammerlader

    Model 1860/67 Naval kammerlader
    Landmark conversion.

    The new kammerlader rifles had a short active service, and were soon converted to fire metallic cartridges. When the metallic cartridge was adopted along with the Remington rolling block rifle in 1867, most of the Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were converted to the new calibre. Two conversion systems were used. The Army used the system of Jacob Lund and the Navy relied on the system of Jens Landmark. The conversions are called Lund's rifles and Landmark's rifles. The new calibre was decided to be 12.17 mm, and the new cartridge got the official designation '12 mm Remington' (also known as 12.17x44, 12x42, 12.17x42, 12.7x44 and similar). You can read more about this cartridge in the article about the Remington rolling block.

    Models

    The following 4''' models are known:

    • M/1860 4''' Army three bander (long)
    • M/1860 4''' Army two bander (short)
    • M/1860 4''' three bander (long) for shooting societies
    • M/1860 4''' two bander (short) for shooting societies
    • M/1860 4''' Navy two bander
    • M/1862 4''' artillery carbine
    • M/1865 4''' cavalry carbine

    Kammerlader

    Model 1860/67 Army kammerlader
    Lund's conversion. Notice the
    rimfire breech block.

    Today it is extremely rare to find an unconverted 4''' kammerlader rifle. If you find one, it is probably one of the shooting society models. The 4''' kammerlader rifles were very accurate in it time, and they performed very well in a comparativ shooting competition in Belgium in 1861.

    Bayonets

    The short Model 1860 kammerlader rifles were equipped with yataghan style sabre bayonets similar to that of the Remington rifle. It was also basically similar to the 18 bore short rifle bayonet. The long rifles was fitted with a socket bayonet.