Paris overga seg under den fransk-prøyssiske krig. Etter råd fra Bismarck igangsatte det tyske artilleriet rundt byen et omfattende bombardement, hvor rundt 12 000 granater ble skutt inn i byen gjennom 23 netter i den hensikt å bryte den franske... Read more ...
Paris overga seg til Preussen
Paris overga seg under den fransk-prøyssiske krig. Etter råd fra Bismarck igangsatte det tyske artilleriet rundt byen et omfattende bombardement, hvor rundt 12 000 granater ble skutt inn i byen gjennom 23 netter i den hensikt å bryte den franske kampmoralen gjennom strategisk bombing. Rundt 400 mennesker ble drept eller savnet, men bombardementet viste seg å ha liten effekt på kampmoralen. Da pariserne til slutt ble tvunget til å overgi seg var det fordi matforrådene var brukt opp.
Krigen ble utkjempet mellom Frankrike og Det nordtyske forbund under Preussens ledelse, sammen med de sør-tyske statene Baden, Bayern, og Württemberg, samt Storhertugdømmet Hessen mellom 19. juli 1870 og 10. mai 1871. Etter en serie franske nederlag i åpningsfasen av krigen ble nesten halvparten av den franske styrken omringet ved Metz, og den nyetablerte franske unnsetningsstyrken ble knust i et slag ved Sedan, hvor den franske keiser Napoleon 3. overga seg til tyskerne. Dette førte til opprettelsen av den tredje franske republikk.
Krigen endte med en overveldende tysk seier etter at tyske styrker hadde erobret Paris, og Tyskland ble i løpet av krigen samlet under Preussens ledelse.
- Gisle Haukelid
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This article deals with the Norwegian and Swedish Remington rolling block rifle. The Remington rolling block is an American design, but was adopted by the two Scandinavian armies in 1867. The calibre was 12 mm Remington, also known as 12,17x44, 12,17x42, 12,7x44, 12,7x42 or 4\'\'\'. Read this article to find out more about the history and the practical use.
Published: 18 September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 2 December 2021.
11.77mm kammerlader Model 1860 with the chamber open and ready fro loading.
The Norwegian 18-bore kammerlader rifles were continually improved from the first model was adopted in 1842. In 1860 a new model with several radical changes was adopted. The most important difference was the reduction of the calibre from 18 bore to 4 decimal lines – which translates to 11.77mm or .463". The calibre was thus reduced with approximately 5mm or .2".
Long and short Model 1860 Army kammerlader rifles.
The conventional rifling was replaced with hexagonal Whitworth rifling on the Model 1860. Now the chamber was rifled was well. Because of the smaller calibre, the Model 1860 was considerably lighter and slimmer compared to the old 18 bore models.
Find out more!
You can learn more about the kammerlader rifles in the book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
The Army’s Model 1860 kammerlader rifles
Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk produced the Model 1860 for both the Army and Navy as well as for civilians. The Army rifles were produced in two lengths: short and long. The lengths were identical to the short and long 18 bore infantry rifles. As before, the short rifles made for jägers, light infantry and non-commissioned officers had two brass bands and a sword bayonet, while the long infantry rifles had three brass bands and socket bayonets.
Some of the rifles that shot the tightest groups during the sighting in were equipped with sharpshooter sight with graduations up to 1500 ells (941 metres or 1030 yards). The rest got the regular sight called ‘vinkellamellsikte’ which had openings for distances up to 750 ells (471 metres or 515 yards). About 12,000 rifles were produced in total and about 75% of them were long.
There are four different patterns of the Model 1860 Army rifles:
- Long Model 1860 with regular sights (‘vinkellamellsikte’)
- Long Model 1860 with sharpshooter sights
- Short Model 1860 with regular sights (‘vinkellamellsikte’)
- Short Model 1860 with sharpshooter sights
Naval Model 1860 kammerlader rifles
The Navy were issued 1400 short Model 1860 rifles – most of which were equipped with socket bayonets. However, some were also delivered with sword bayonets identical to that of the Army. Like the Army rifles, the most accurate had sharpshooter sights installed.
Drawing of the most common Naval Model 1860 pattern with 'vinkellamellsikte' and socket bayonet lug.
The Navy used the following patterns of the Model 1860:
- Short Model 1860 with ‘vinkellamellsikte’ and sword bayonet
- Short Model 1860 with ‘vinkellamellsikte’ and socket bayonet
- Short Model 1860 with sharpshooter sight and sword bayonet
- Short Model 1860 with sharpshooter sight and socket bayonet
Artillery and cavalry carbines
A trial carbine with approximate 12mm (.47") calibre was adopted for the cavalry in 1857. When the 11.77mm infantry rifle calibre was adopted in 1860 it was decided to design new carbines with identical calibre. An artillery carbine approved for trial in 1862 and formally adopted in 1866. The Model 1862/66 artillery carbine was equipped with sword bayonets.
11.77mm Model 1862/66 artillery carbine..
Cavalry carbine Model 1865 was almost identical to the artillery carbine but did not have bayonet.
11.77mm Model 1865 cavalry carbine.
The following three carbine models were used:
- Model 1857 cavalry carbine
- Model 1862/66 artillery carbine
- Model 1865 cavalry carbine
In total 1400 of the Model 1862/66 and Model 1865 carbines were produced. This page allows you to search for your cavalry or artillery carbine (only in Norwegian).
The long Model 1860 Army rifles used a socket bayonet of the same type used on the 18 bore rifles, but the socket was adapted to the thinner barrel of the Model 1860. The short rifles were equipped with a sword bayonet which was similar to the bayonet used on the short 18 bore rifles, but the ring diameter was reduced to fit the barrel. The same sword bayonet was later used on the Model 1867 Remington rolling block rifle. The artillery carbines used a similar sword bayonet, but with a shorter grip.
Socket bayonet Model 1860.
Sword bayonet Model 1860.
Metallic cartridge conversions
While the Navy issued the new rifles immediately to sailors on board the war ships, the Army never issued their rifles the troops – except for some special units, such as the Norwegian Sharpshooter Company in Stockholm. In 1867 the Army decided to convert the Model 1860 rifles to fire the same metallic cartridge as the newly adopted Remington rolling block rifle. The metallic cartridge conversion was invented by rustmester Jacob Gabriel Lund and the rifles were named ‘Lund rifles’. After the conversion they were designated Model 1860/67 Lund.
Model 1860/67 Lund rifle.
Almost all the 12,000 Model 1860 rifles were converted, and unaltered Model 1860 rifles are virtually non-existent. Kongsberg also produced factory new Lund rifles. These are designated Model 1867 Lund rifles. The Navy converted 514 of their 1400 rifles to Remington rolling block from about 1868, but the conversion proved too expensive. Therefore, it was decided to convert the remaining to a system invented by director Jens Landmark at Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk. The Navy conversion is called ‘Landmark conversion’ or simply ‘Landmark rifle’. Original percussion navy rifles are non-existent today.
Naval Landmark rifle Model 1860.
With very few exceptions, all of the Model 1862/66 and Model 1865 carbines were converted to Lund carbines after 1869. After the conversion they were designated Model 1862/66/69 and Model 1865/69. After the conversion, and few of the most accurate carbines were equipped with sharpshooter sights. The trial carbines from 1857 were not converted.
The Lund carbines were chambered for a slightly shorter 12mm cartridge called 12 x 29.
Civilian small-bore kammerlader rifles
In the beginning of the 1860s, Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk got permission to produce rifles for the civilian shooting society movement. The Model 1860 won an international shooting competition in Belgium that compared a wide range of rifles intended for Belgian volunteers.
The civilian rifles can be found in a wide range of configurations, but the main models were quite similar to the long and short military rifles. They were often made from rejected parts from the military production. To be able to separate the civilian and military rifles, the civilian rifles were produced with iron fittings instead of brass. The civilian Model 1860 has iron buttplate, lock plate and barrel bands, while the military rifles had brass buttplates, bands and lock plates. All military rifles are stocked in birch, but some of the civilian rifles have walnut stocks. Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk produced approximately 3100 short and 600 long small-bore kammerlader rifles.
The factory also made between 250 and 400 full-stock rifles. These were more expensive than the military pattern rifles.
Civilian 11.77mm kammerlader rifles. From top to bottom: Long Model 1860, short Model 1860 and a full stock hunting rifle.
Shooting the small-bore kammerlader
If you find a small-bore 11.77mm calibre which is not converted to metallic cartridge, it is most likely a civilian rifle. Because of the scarcity of these rifles, they are rarely used. The Model 1860 was loaded with a paper-patched hollow base bullet. In many respects it is a downsized version of the British .577" Pritchett-Enfield bullet. Moulds for the Norwegian Model 1860 kammerlader is not produced today, som the only opportunity is to have someone make a custom mould or use original moulds.
The load was first 80 grains of rifle-grade black powder, but the load was soon reduced to 75 grains. The Army and Navy used paper cartridges of the same type as the 18 bore Model 1861 cartridge (basically the same as the .577" Enfield cartridge). However, civilians often used paper patched projectiles and measured powder charges. Swaged bullets were readily available over the counter – either patched or unpatched. Another option is to use minié balls, for example, bullets made for the Swedish Model 1860 ‘Wrede’ muzzle-loading rifle or Danish shooting society rifles.
You can read more about small-bore kammerlader rifles in From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms or in the Norwegian kammerlader book.
Short civilian Model 1860 kammerlader ready for the range.