Vandalene plyndret Roma. Plyndringen i år 455 var den andre av tre plyndringer av byen. Før de gikk inn i byen ødela vandalene Romas akvedukter, og dermed vannforsyningen til innbyggerne. Pave Leo 1. krevde at vandalene ikke skulle ødelegge... Read more ...
Vandalene plyndret Roma
Vandalene plyndret Roma. Plyndringen i år 455 var den andre av tre plyndringer av byen. Før de gikk inn i byen ødela vandalene Romas akvedukter, og dermed vannforsyningen til innbyggerne. Pave Leo 1. krevde at vandalene ikke skulle ødelegge gamlebyen eller myrde innbyggerne, og vandalenes leder Genseric holdt dette løftet. Portene ble dermed åpnet for Genseric og hans menn.
Vandalene tok seg god tid, og i motsetning til visigoterne som plyndret Roma i tre dager i år 410, så brukte vandalene to uker på jobben. De ødela mange kulturskatter under plyndringen og ble dermed opphav til det moderne uttrykket «vandalisme».
Vandalene var et germansk folkeslag, som utgjorde en betydelig del av trusselen mot Romerriket i den såkalte folkevandringstiden. Vandalene vandret gjennom Gallia og Hispania før de dannet et betydelig kongedømme i Nord-Afrika med hovedstad i dagens Algerie. Herfra dominerte de øyene i det vestlige Middelhavet. I 534 overga den siste vandalkongen seg til romerne, og etter dette hadde vandalene lite betydning i historien.
No chatting right now.
(You must be logged in to the Norwegian forum to chat.)
Picture series that show a 18 bore naval kammerlader converted according to Landmark's system. If you want to know more about kammerladers, you can read the articles in the "Kammerlader" category. You find the categories in the top menu.
Published: 22 September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
There is a lot of available reloading equipment for the black powder cartridge shooter. Much of it is for the especially interested shooters and most ordinary shooters can do without too much equipment. However, reloading equipment is fun and in many cases it can be time-saving. It may even enhance accuracy.
When I cast pure lead bullets I use the max temperature of the melting pot which is over 1000 Fahrenheit (about 540 Celsius). When I use tin alloys I cast at a temperature of about 750 Fahrenheit (about 400 Celsius). The reason is that the tin in the alloy may evaporate at higher temperatures.
Lead thermometers for bullet casting are produced by, for example, Lyman and RCBS, and can be bought where you buy reloading equipment. Tin alloys can be bought from suppliers of black powder reloading equipment, such as Buffalo Arms.
Find out more!
You can learn more about reloading equipment and accessories for black powder guns in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
Another method is to dip the bullets in molten bullet lube. I have used this method a lot, and it works well. You melt the bullet lube in a double boiler, use pliers to dip the bullets in the lube and set them aside to dry on, for example,on a sheet of newspaper. You can also 'bath'a number of bullets in molten lube and pick them up with pliers and dry them. This method is also messy, and if the lube is too hot the lube will not stick to the greasing grooves when drying. The opposite may also happen: if the bullet is too cold it have too much lube. The latter doesn't matter if you size the bullet after lubricating as excess lube will be removed when sizing. The advantage with this method is that it is relatively fast.
You can also melt bullet lube in a double boiler: place the bullets standing up in tray and pour the molten bullet lube in the tray until the top grease grooves are covered. Let the bullet lube cool and harden. When you remove the bullets the grooves are covered with lube.
Yet another advantage with a lube sizer is that you can adjust how many grooves you want to lubricate. However, a lube sizer is a bit expensive, and it cannot lube heel-based bullets. Sixing dies over .50 calibre is not commercially available, but you can have them custom made up to at least .58".
Wad punch for the reloading press
Simple and traditional reloading tools
In the old days hand-held reloading tools were used instead of the stationary reloading presses we are used to today. Lyman still manufacture the hand-held reloading 310 Tool that was made for the first time over 100 years ago. It was 'nutcrackers' like this that were used by the buffalo hunters that hunted buffalo on the American plains during the 1870s and 1880s.
The 310 Tool is available for all the classical American rifle and pistol calibres. All the things that are described in this article can be purchased from Buffalo Arms.