Landsbyen Baltimore i Irland ble angrepet av slavehandlere fra Nord-Afrikas Middelhavskyst. Slavehandlerne besto av hollendere, algirere og ottomanske tyrkere. Angriperne ble ledet til landsbyen av en mann kalt Hackett, som var en fisker som... Read more ...
Nord-afrikanske slavehandlere angrep Irland
Landsbyen Baltimore i Irland ble angrepet av slavehandlere fra Nord-Afrikas Middelhavskyst. Slavehandlerne besto av hollendere, algirere og ottomanske tyrkere. Angriperne ble ledet til landsbyen av en mann kalt Hackett, som var en fisker som slavehandlerne hadde fanget tidligere. Fiskeren fikk beholde livet for innsatsen, men ble i etterkant straks hengt fra klippene utenfor Baltimore av landsbyboerne.
Slavehandlerne tok til fange 108 engelskmenn som jobbet i sardinindustrien i landsbyen, samt noen av lokalbefolkningen. Fangene ble lagt i jern og ført til et liv i slaveri i Nord-Afrika. En del av slavene ble brukt som galeislaver og rodde rundt på havet i flere tiår uten noen gang å sette beina på land. Andre havnet i harem eller ble brukt som arbeidere. Det er kjent at tre av fangene klarte å vende tilbake til Irland.
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This article deals with the Norwegian and Swedish Remington rolling block rifle. The Remington rolling block is an American design, but was adopted by the two Scandinavian armies in 1867. The calibre was 12 mm Remington, also known as 12,17x44, 12,17x42, 12,7x44, 12,7x42 or 4\'\'\'. Read this article to find out more about the history and the practical use.
Published: 24. November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 25. November 2007.
Click here to see my drawings of how the first models were loaded with the paper cartridge.
Find out more!
You can read more about the Norwegian chamber-loading 'kammerlader' rifles and other capping breech-loading rifles and carbines, as well as needle guns such as the Dreyse and Chassepot in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
Some counterfactual thoughts
As the chamber-loading rifles never saw any combat in its service timeframe, we actually have to imagine what had happened if it was used in the hands of soldiers in a war. If we look to other nations and their armies, Norway was far ahead of most others. One exception is Prussia which adopted von Dreyse’s 15.4 mm (.60”) needle-gun in 1841. The needle-gun, or Zündnadelgewehr as it was called in Prussia, fired a self-contained cartridge, while the chamber-loader had to be loaded with paper cartridge and loose caps. However, the needle-gun had its limitations.
In the rest of the world the muzzleloader was still extensively used. At the outbreak of the American Civil War 19 years after the adoption of the chamber-loader Norway had already improved their first chamber-loader and reduced the calibre. The Civil War was largely fought with muzzleloading rifle muskets. Would the outcome of the war have been different if one or both of the opposing parties had been armed with the Norwegian chamber-loader? Probably not. First of all, the Civil War was largely fought with outdated battle tactics from the time of the smoothbore musket. Secondly, the troops lacked marksman training.
However, an army that was trained both with the kammerlader rifle and more appropriate battle tactics would probably have had some impact in the wars that were fought with muzzleloaders. One example is the battle of Königsgrätz in 1866 when Bismarck's Prussians armed with von Dreyse's needle-guns completely overrand the Austrians that were armed with muzzleloaders.
It can be a bit difficult to get hold of a proper bullet mould for a kammerlader. I have made my own drawings and made a bullet mould that casts a replica of the Model 1855 bullet.
To the left: Paper cartridges. To the right: Bullets cast from a custom mould.
To the left: A good group shot with a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader. Right: Shooting a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader.