Beleiringen av Akershus festning av svenske styrker under Karl 12. begynte. Dette var den siste av mange beleiringer mot et av de sterkeste festningsanleggene i norgeshistorien. Kong Karl 12. av Sverige inntok Christiania som del av en plan... Read more ...
Akershus festning ble beleiret
Beleiringen av Akershus festning av svenske styrker under Karl 12. begynte. Dette var den siste av mange beleiringer mot et av de sterkeste festningsanleggene i norgeshistorien.
Kong Karl 12. av Sverige inntok Christiania som del av en plan som tok sikte på å underlegge seg det sørlige Norge som ledd i hans strategi for å tvinge Danmark-Norge ut av den pågående krigen, men Akershus festning var for sterk. I 39 dager kunne ikke svenskene angripe av frykt for store tap uten nødvendig beleiringsartilleri.
På Akershus festning lå en forsvarsstyrke som i tillegg til garnisonen besto av et artillerikompani, tre bataljoner og seks landdragonkompanier på tilsammen 3 000 mann. Før svenskene ankom hadde initiativrike borgerne organisert forsyningsapparatet og klart å få ført mye av forsyningene i sikkerhet slik at verken garnisonen eller andre hærgrupper skulle kunne trues med sult og proviantmangel.
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Part three in the series about the Jarmann rifle focuses on the Swedish three-band naval Jarmann. This rifle is one of 1000 that were manufactured for the Swedish navy in 1883 and is quite similar to the one issued to the Norwegian army.
Published: 24 November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 25 November 2007.
Click here to see my drawings of how the first models were loaded with the paper cartridge.
Find out more!
You can read more about the Norwegian chamber-loading 'kammerlader' rifles and other capping breech-loading rifles and carbines, as well as needle guns such as the Dreyse and Chassepot in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.
Some counterfactual thoughts
As the chamber-loading rifles never saw any combat in its service timeframe, we actually have to imagine what had happened if it was used in the hands of soldiers in a war. If we look to other nations and their armies, Norway was far ahead of most others. One exception is Prussia which adopted von Dreyse’s 15.4 mm (.60”) needle-gun in 1841. The needle-gun, or Zündnadelgewehr as it was called in Prussia, fired a self-contained cartridge, while the chamber-loader had to be loaded with paper cartridge and loose caps. However, the needle-gun had its limitations.
In the rest of the world the muzzleloader was still extensively used. At the outbreak of the American Civil War 19 years after the adoption of the chamber-loader Norway had already improved their first chamber-loader and reduced the calibre. The Civil War was largely fought with muzzleloading rifle muskets. Would the outcome of the war have been different if one or both of the opposing parties had been armed with the Norwegian chamber-loader? Probably not. First of all, the Civil War was largely fought with outdated battle tactics from the time of the smoothbore musket. Secondly, the troops lacked marksman training.
However, an army that was trained both with the kammerlader rifle and more appropriate battle tactics would probably have had some impact in the wars that were fought with muzzleloaders. One example is the battle of Königsgrätz in 1866 when Bismarck's Prussians armed with von Dreyse's needle-guns completely overrand the Austrians that were armed with muzzleloaders.
It can be a bit difficult to get hold of a proper bullet mould for a kammerlader. I have made my own drawings and made a bullet mould that casts a replica of the Model 1855 bullet.
To the left: Paper cartridges. To the right: Bullets cast from a custom mould.
To the left: A good group shot with a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader. Right: Shooting a M/1849/55/59 two band kammerlader.