Battle of Québec
The Battle of Quebec was fought between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of Quebec City early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came with heavy losses. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner. The city's garrison, a motley assortment of regular troops and militia led by Quebec's provincial governor, General Guy Carleton, suffered a small number of casualties.
In the battle and the following siege, French-speaking Canadians were active on both sides of the conflict. The American forces received supplies and logistical support from local residents, and the city's defenders included locally raised militia. When the Americans retreated, they were accompanied by a number of their supporters; those who remained behind were subjected to a variety of punishments after the British re-established control over the province.
- 35 VRM
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Many Norwegian black powder shooters have an old kammerlader lying around. If it is in good condition you can shoot it, but it may prove difficult to obtain proper bullets. This article gives some insight in the different bullets used in the Norwegian military kammerlader rifle.
Published: 2 July 2020 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Kammerlader Model 1849/55 og four types of Norwegian paper cartridges: Roundball cartridge, Model 1855 conical-ball cartridge, cartridge for pillar-breech rifles Model 1851 and conical-ball cartridge Model 1861.
svartkrutt.net's cartridge former for Norwegian paper cartridges. Get the cartridge former here
Choking the cartridge.
In addition to the dowel you a suitable cartridge paper – and of course roundballs or proper conical balls. The paper should not be too thick and not too thin. Printer paper is usually too thick and does not have the softness required for good cartridges. Good quality newspaper paper may work for musket cartridges, but you need something more durable for kammerlader and pillar-breech cartridges. You also need thin cotton or woolen thread to tie off the cartridges.
Kammerlader roundball cartridges
The smoothbore muskets and kammerlader rifles used a similar paper cartridge. Only the powder charge and ball diameter differed. The muskets used 18 lødig balls (16.63mm/.655"), whereas the kammerlader rifles used a larger 16 lødig ball (17.26mm/.68"). However, .69 calibre roundballs work fine for kammerlader rifles. All kammerlader roundballs and conical balls had a 17.26mm/.68" diameter.
It is a good idea to practice how to choke the cartridges. When you chole a cartridge you fold the paper over the ball, making it easier to tie off the cartridge. To choke, secure a thread to a table or working bench. Follow the instructions in the video to see how the choking work for the different cartridge types.
Important: When you print the templates below, make sure you select A4 format in your printer’s settings to get correct 1:1 format. If you print in letter format or similar, make sure to disable downscaling.
See how to make roundball cartridge Model 1847 and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):
Kammerlader cartridge Model 1849 for sharpshooters
Pillar-breech rifle cartridges
Pillar-breech rifles are smooth-bore muskets that were rifled and equipped with a pointed pillar or stem on the face of the breech plug in the bottom of the barrel (see the video below). The pillar-breech system was adopted in Norway in 1851 and thousands of smoothbore muskets as well as jäger rifles were converted. The pillar-breech rifles used the same conical ball as the conical-ball cartridges for the kammerlader, but the cartridges differed. The pillar-breech rifle cartridges had only paper around the bearing surface of the conical ball. The paper was secured to the ball with a wool thread in each groove. Although different, the pillar-breech cartridges can be used in kammerlader riflers and the other way around.
See how to make a pillar-breech rifle cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):
Kammerlader cartridge Model 1855
In 1855 the roundballs and sharpshooter bullets were replaced with a new conical ball. The Model 1855 paper cartridge differs from the pillar-breech rifle cartridge in three ways: Paper covers the conical part of the ball, the threads are not tied into the grooves but in front of the nose and behind the base and the powder charge was heavier.
See how to make a Model 1855 kammerlader cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4).:
Kammerlader cartridge Model 1861
After it was discovered that the tip of the ball tore holes in the cartridge bundles a new cartridge was adopted in 1861. Patterned after contemporary French and British cartridges, the Norwegian cartridge is basically the same as the British .577 Enfield cartridge.
The cartridge consists of three sheets of paper: a powder cylinder, an inner wrapper and an outer wrapper. You only need two templates because the dimentions for the powder cylinder and inner wrapper are identical. The powder cylinder is however made from a stiffer type of cardboard.
See how to make a Model 1855 kammerlader cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):