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14 August 1842

Seminole-indianerne, som var truet av hungersnød, oppga kampen mot den amerikanske hæren. Det ble aldri underskrevet noen fredstraktat, men seminolene ble tvunget til å flytte fra sumpene i Florida til det tørre og golde Oklahoma Territory. En... Read more ...

14 August 1842

Den andre seminolekrigen ble avsluttet
Seminole-indianerne, som var truet av hungersnød, oppga kampen mot den amerikanske hæren. Det ble aldri underskrevet noen fredstraktat, men seminolene ble tvunget til å flytte fra sumpene i Florida til det tørre og golde Oklahoma Territory. En liten gruppe på rundt 300 klarte derimot å gjemme seg i sumpene. Der fikk de leve i fred frem til rundt 1855 da den tredje seminolekrigen brøt ut.


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    Featured article

      The Norwegian Kammerlader

    • The Norwegian Kammerlader

      In the mid 1850s the Norwegian Army and Navy was armed with a very modern rifle that few contemporary armies could match. In Norway this weapon was called the \"kammerlader\" og \"chamber-loader\". In this article you can read more about the history of the kammerlader and its practical use.

    Norwegian kammerlader and pillar-breech rifle paper cartridges

    Category: Norwegian kammerlader
    Published: 2 July 2020 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Views: 238
    Les artikkel på norsk
    Norwegia

    Kammerlader Model 1849/55 og four types of Norwegian paper cartridges: Roundball cartridge, Model 1855 conical-ball cartridge, cartridge for pillar-breech rifles Model 1851 and conical-ball cartridge Model 1861.

    Cartridge former

    svartkrutt.net's cartridge former for Norwegian paper cartridges. Get the cartridge former here

    Choking the cartridge.

    Choking the cartridge.

    The svartkrutt.net musket and kammerlader cartridge forming dowel allows you to make all types of Norwegian musket, pillar-breech rifle and kammerlader paper cartridges. While you can purchase the cartridge forming dowel in the webshop, this article provides you with the instructions and templates you need.

    In addition to the dowel you a suitable cartridge paper – and of course roundballs or proper conical balls. The paper should not be too thick and not too thin. Printer paper is usually too thick and does not have the softness required for good cartridges. Good quality newspaper paper may work for musket cartridges, but you need something more durable for kammerlader and pillar-breech cartridges. You also need thin cotton or woolen thread to tie off the cartridges.

    Kammerlader roundball cartridges

    The smoothbore muskets and kammerlader rifles used a similar paper cartridge. Only the powder charge and ball diameter differed. The muskets used 18 lødig balls (16.63mm/.655"), whereas the kammerlader rifles used a larger 16 lødig ball (17.26mm/.68"). However, .69 calibre roundballs work fine for kammerlader rifles. All kammerlader roundballs and conical balls had a 17.26mm/.68" diameter.

    It is a good idea to practice how to choke the cartridges. When you chole a cartridge you fold the paper over the ball, making it easier to tie off the cartridge. To choke, secure a thread to a table or working bench. Follow the instructions in the video to see how the choking work for the different cartridge types.

    Important: When you print the templates below, make sure you select A4 format in your printer’s settings to get correct 1:1 format. If you print in letter format or similar, make sure to disable downscaling.

    See how to make roundball cartridge Model 1847 and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):

    Kammerlader cartridge Model 1849 for sharpshooters

    The Model 1849 sharpshooter cartridge.

    The Model 1849 sharpshooter cartridge.

    In 1849 the Army adopted a heavy one-groove conical ball intended for the best marksmen in each company. The paper template for the sharpshooter cartridge is not known, but the 1855 template will work. Cartridge Model 1849 is made the same way as the pillar-breech cartridges (see below).

    Pillar-breech rifle cartridges

    Pillar-breech rifles are smooth-bore muskets that were rifled and equipped with a pointed pillar or stem on the face of the breech plug in the bottom of the barrel (see the video below). The pillar-breech system was adopted in Norway in 1851 and thousands of smoothbore muskets as well as jäger rifles were converted. The pillar-breech rifles used the same conical ball as the conical-ball cartridges for the kammerlader, but the cartridges differed. The pillar-breech rifle cartridges had only paper around the bearing surface of the conical ball. The paper was secured to the ball with a wool thread in each groove. Although different, the pillar-breech cartridges can be used in kammerlader riflers and the other way around.

    See how to make a pillar-breech rifle cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):

    Kammerlader cartridge Model 1855

    In 1855 the roundballs and sharpshooter bullets were replaced with a new conical ball. The Model 1855 paper cartridge differs from the pillar-breech rifle cartridge in three ways: Paper covers the conical part of the ball, the threads are not tied into the grooves but in front of the nose and behind the base and the powder charge was heavier.

    See how to make a Model 1855 kammerlader cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4).:

    Kammerlader cartridge Model 1861

    After it was discovered that the tip of the ball tore holes in the cartridge bundles a new cartridge was adopted in 1861. Patterned after contemporary French and British cartridges, the Norwegian cartridge is basically the same as the British .577 Enfield cartridge.

    The cartridge consists of three sheets of paper: a powder cylinder, an inner wrapper and an outer wrapper. You only need two templates because the dimentions for the powder cylinder and inner wrapper are identical. The powder cylinder is however made from a stiffer type of cardboard.

    See how to make a Model 1855 kammerlader cartridge and download a 1:1 template (pdf, size A4):