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14 December 1718

Sweden called off the siege of Fredriksten in Norway after the death of their king Charles XII. In the Autumn of 1718 Charles had once more attacked Norway, intending to first capture Halden to be able to sustain a siege of Akershus. By first taking... Read more ...

14 December 1718

Sweden called off the siege of Fredriksten
Sweden called off the siege of Fredriksten in Norway after the death of their king Charles XII. In the Autumn of 1718 Charles had once more attacked Norway, intending to first capture Halden to be able to sustain a siege of Akershus. By first taking the border areas, Charles wished to avoid a repeat of the fiasco he had suffered two years before. The 1,400 strong garrison of Frederiksten fought ferociously to hold back the invasion, but suffered a severe setback when, on 8 December the forward fortification Fort Gyldenløve fell.

Encouraged by their very hard-fought success the Swedish army intensified their efforts against the main fort. The Swedish trenches had almost reached the main fortification walls when on the evening of 11 December (Swedish calendar: 30 November) 1718, a bullet struck and killed Charles XII while he inspected the work. The death of the king effectively ended the attack on Fredriksten and the invasion was called off on this day in 1718, leading to the conclusion of the war.


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    Testing Black Powder Hunting Bullets

    Category: Hunting
    Published: 24 November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
    Edited: 25 November 2007.
    Views: 17446
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    If you're planning on taking your black powder weapon out hunting it can be an sensible to find out how the bullets reacts when they hit the animal, especially for big game hunters. I Norway, roe-deer is the most common animal to hunt with a black powder weapon due to the energy requirements.

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    You can learn more about black powder hunting in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

    Shooting bullets into a stack of wet phone books is the poor man's way to test hunting bullets for penetration and expansibility. A while back I tested a .58 cal. 1861 repro Springfield muzzleloading rifle musket, a 12 mm (.48 cal.) original military issue Remington rolling block rifle, two .50 cal. muzzleloaders and a modern .308 Win. hunting rifle with various loads shot into wet phone books. The phone books had been soaked in water overnight in water and were stacked without space between the books. The loads were shot at a distance of 10 yards. As you can see from the table, the 12 mm Remington rolling block achieved the best penetration of all, including the smokeless .308 loads. The 1861 Springfield had the second best penetration. The results can be viewed in the table below:

    Calibre Weapon Bullet Load Penetration
    .58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 63 grs. 2 Fg 46 cm
    .58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 63 grs. 2 Fg 29 cm*
    .58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 65 grs. 3 Fg 39 cm
    .58 1861 Springfield Hornady GP 65 grs. 1 Fg 26 cm
    12 mm Remington RB M-1867 Jämt 58 grs. 2 Fg 58,5 cm
    12 mm Remington RB M-1867 Jämt 58 grs. 2 Fg 32,5 cm*
    .50 Kentucky .490 roundball 66 grs. 2 Fg 40 cm
    .50 Tennessee .490 rundkule 87 grs. 2 Fg 26 cm
    .308 Win. Moderne rifle Sierra 150 grs. SPBT 43,6 grs. Vihtavuori N-140 29 cm
    .308 Win. Moderne rifle Sierra 168 grs. HPBT 42 grs. Vihtavuori N-140 45 cm

    * = A 4 mm hollow point was manually made on the bullet nose.

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    The .58 cal. bullets. From left to right: Two unfired bullets, one bulle fired with 63 grs. 2 Fg Wano black powder, while the last was shot with the same load but with a hollow point bullet.

    Kuletest

    .58 cal. Hornady Great Plains swaged hollow point bullets before and after firing with 65 grs. 1 Fg.

    Kuletest

    M-1867 Jämt-bullet fired from an original Husqvarna M/1867 12 mm Remington rolling block. The load is the same, but the bullet on the far right had a hollow point.

    Kuletest

    .490" roundballs shot from .50 cal. muzzleloaders. The ball in the middle was shot from an Armi Sport Kentucky loaded with 66 grs. 2 Fg, while the ball to the right was shot from the custom made southern Mountain rifle "Death Wind" with 87 grs. 2 Fg.

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    Two .30 cal. bullets from Sierra fired from a .308 Win. hunting rifle from Remington. The one on the left is a 150 grs. Spitzer Boat Tail GameKing bullet, and the one on the right is a 168 grains Hollow point Boat Tail MatchKing. Both had core/jacket separation.