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28 January 1871

Paris overga seg under den fransk-prøyssiske krig. Etter råd fra Bismarck igangsatte det tyske artilleriet rundt byen et omfattende bombardement, hvor rundt 12 000 granater ble skutt inn i byen gjennom 23 netter i den hensikt å bryte den franske... Read more ...

28 January 1871

Paris overga seg til Preussen
Paris overga seg under den fransk-prøyssiske krig. Etter råd fra Bismarck igangsatte det tyske artilleriet rundt byen et omfattende bombardement, hvor rundt 12 000 granater ble skutt inn i byen gjennom 23 netter i den hensikt å bryte den franske kampmoralen gjennom strategisk bombing. Rundt 400 mennesker ble drept eller savnet, men bombardementet viste seg å ha liten effekt på kampmoralen. Da pariserne til slutt ble tvunget til å overgi seg var det fordi matforrådene var brukt opp.

Krigen ble utkjempet mellom Frankrike og Det nordtyske forbund under Preussens ledelse, sammen med de sør-tyske statene Baden, Bayern, og Württemberg, samt Storhertugdømmet Hessen mellom 19. juli 1870 og 10. mai 1871. Etter en serie franske nederlag i åpningsfasen av krigen ble nesten halvparten av den franske styrken omringet ved Metz, og den nyetablerte franske unnsetningsstyrken ble knust i et slag ved Sedan, hvor den franske keiser Napoleon 3. overga seg til tyskerne. Dette førte til opprettelsen av den tredje franske republikk.

Krigen endte med en overveldende tysk seier etter at tyske styrker hadde erobret Paris, og Tyskland ble i løpet av krigen samlet under Preussens ledelse.


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Featured article

Testing Black Powder Hunting Bullets

Category: Hunting
Published: 24 November 2007 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 25 November 2007.
Views: 19840
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If you're planning on taking your black powder weapon out hunting it can be an sensible to find out how the bullets reacts when they hit the animal, especially for big game hunters. I Norway, roe-deer is the most common animal to hunt with a black powder weapon due to the energy requirements.

Find out more!
You can learn more about black powder hunting in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Shooting bullets into a stack of wet phone books is the poor man's way to test hunting bullets for penetration and expansibility. A while back I tested a .58 cal. 1861 repro Springfield muzzleloading rifle musket, a 12 mm (.48 cal.) original military issue Remington rolling block rifle, two .50 cal. muzzleloaders and a modern .308 Win. hunting rifle with various loads shot into wet phone books. The phone books had been soaked in water overnight in water and were stacked without space between the books. The loads were shot at a distance of 10 yards. As you can see from the table, the 12 mm Remington rolling block achieved the best penetration of all, including the smokeless .308 loads. The 1861 Springfield had the second best penetration. The results can be viewed in the table below:

Calibre Weapon Bullet Load Penetration
.58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 63 grs. 2 Fg 46 cm
.58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 63 grs. 2 Fg 29 cm*
.58 1861 Springfield RCBS 58-500 Minié 65 grs. 3 Fg 39 cm
.58 1861 Springfield Hornady GP 65 grs. 1 Fg 26 cm
12 mm Remington RB M-1867 Jämt 58 grs. 2 Fg 58,5 cm
12 mm Remington RB M-1867 Jämt 58 grs. 2 Fg 32,5 cm*
.50 Kentucky .490 roundball 66 grs. 2 Fg 40 cm
.50 Tennessee .490 rundkule 87 grs. 2 Fg 26 cm
.308 Win. Moderne rifle Sierra 150 grs. SPBT 43,6 grs. Vihtavuori N-140 29 cm
.308 Win. Moderne rifle Sierra 168 grs. HPBT 42 grs. Vihtavuori N-140 45 cm

* = A 4 mm hollow point was manually made on the bullet nose.

Kuletest

The .58 cal. bullets. From left to right: Two unfired bullets, one bulle fired with 63 grs. 2 Fg Wano black powder, while the last was shot with the same load but with a hollow point bullet.

Kuletest

.58 cal. Hornady Great Plains swaged hollow point bullets before and after firing with 65 grs. 1 Fg.

Kuletest

M-1867 Jämt-bullet fired from an original Husqvarna M/1867 12 mm Remington rolling block. The load is the same, but the bullet on the far right had a hollow point.

Kuletest

.490" roundballs shot from .50 cal. muzzleloaders. The ball in the middle was shot from an Armi Sport Kentucky loaded with 66 grs. 2 Fg, while the ball to the right was shot from the custom made southern Mountain rifle "Death Wind" with 87 grs. 2 Fg.

Kuletest

Two .30 cal. bullets from Sierra fired from a .308 Win. hunting rifle from Remington. The one on the left is a 150 grs. Spitzer Boat Tail GameKing bullet, and the one on the right is a 168 grains Hollow point Boat Tail MatchKing. Both had core/jacket separation.