On this day

5 December 1839

The United States Army officer and cavalry commander George Armstrong Custer was born. Custer fought in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army... Read more ...

5 December 1839

George Armstrong Custer was born
The United States Army officer and cavalry commander George Armstrong Custer was born. Custer fought in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars

George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 – June 25, 1876) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Raised in Michigan and Ohio, Custer was admitted to West Point in 1857, where he graduated last in his class in 1861. With the outbreak of the Civil War, Custer was called to serve with the Union Army.

Custer developed a strong reputation during the Civil War. He participated in the first major engagement, the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, near Washington, D.C. His association with several important officers helped his career, as did his success as a highly effective cavalry commander. Custer was promoted to captain in 1864, and was brevetted to major general in 1865. At the conclusion of the Appomattox Campaign, in which he and his troops played a decisive role, Custer was present at General Robert E. Lee's surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865.

After the Civil War, Custer remained a major general in the United States Volunteers until they were mustered out in February 1866. He reverted to his permanent rank of captain and was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry Regiment in July 1866. He was dispatched to the west in 1867 to fight in the American Indian Wars. On June 25, 1876, while leading the 7th Cavalry Regiment at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory against a coalition of Native American tribes, he and all of his regiment—which included two of his brothers—were killed. The battle is popularly known in American history as "Custer's Last Stand." Custer and his regiment were defeated so decisively at the Little Bighorn that it has overshadowed all of his prior achievements.



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    Reindeer hunter Jo Gjende and his rifles

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    Norwegian mountain man Jo Tjøstolsson Kleppe (1794–1884), also known as Jo Gjende, was a legendary reindeer hunter. A hermit for the better part of his life, he lived a lonely life in his cabin at Gjendeosen in Jotunheimen (The Home of the Giants) – a mountainous area in southern Norway. He spent his time hunting and reading books by the Age of Enlightenment\'s great philosophers, such as Voltaire and Volney. Known as a character and a crack rifle shot, Jo Gjende supposedly killed between 500 and 600 reindeer.

Sharps Model 1874: Part 2 - Shooting

Category: Black powder cartridge
Published: 4 September 2008 by Øyvind Flatnes.
Edited: 14 November 2008.
Views: 82894
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Shiloh Sharps

The Sharps rifle was popular among big game hunters, the military and target shooters towards the end of the 1800s. It had a reputation for being reliable, simple, powerful, robust and accurate. There are numerous stories about the accuracy of the Sharps rifle. The best known individual shot is probably Billy Dixon's famous shot pointed against a group of Indians during the battle of Adobe Walls, Texas in 1874. The actual distance between Dixon and the Indian has been debated. The numbers vary from 1538 yards (1406 metres) to 1028 yards (940 metres). The shot was probably fired from a .50 calibre rifle, most likely a .50-90 'Big Fifty'. Dixon later claimed that it was a lucky shot. The Indian was shot from his horse, but wasn't killed. The combined force of Comanche, Kiowa and Cheyenne Indians lifted the siege shortly after and retreated, but whether this was a direct consequence of Dixons shot is not known. However, it is known that the plains Indians had a deep respect for the buffalo hunters and their rifles.

Find out more!
You can read more about the Sharps percussion and cartridge rifles, as well as other early breech-loading single-shot rifles in the brand new book From Musket to Metallic Cartridge: A Practical History of Black Powder Firearms.

Even though it was a lucky shot, the story about Billy Dixon indicates what a Sharps rifle was capable of in the hands of a skilled marksman.

Selecting calibre

Model 1874 Sharps

Model 1874 Sharps

Model 1874 Sharps

Model 1874 Sharps

The loading process.

When I ordered my Shiloh Sharps I considered three calibres: .45-70, 45-90 and .45-110. The 45-70 Government cartridge was used by the US Army from 1873 and was the most popular Sharps calibre after 1876. .45-90 was developed for long range target shooting, while .45-110 was the most powerful cartridge ever chambered in an original Sharps Model 1874 rifle. The latter was popular a popular buffalo round.

My plan was to use the Sharps both for big game hunting and target shooting. .45-90 in my case falls between the cracks: It is not powerful enough to be loaded up to the Norwegian big game energy requirements and it is unnecessary powerful for the 100 metre (109 yards) competitions here in Norway, and I rarely shoot at ranges over 300 metres .45-110 had some of the same challenges: Too powerful for competitive shooting and it would be hard to make the big game energy requirements with black powder. Based on this I selected the .45-70 Gvt. This round is just fine for target shooting at moderate ranges and it meets the energy requirements for at least roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) with black powder. Another advantage is that is can be loaded with smokeless powder, which means that it will also meet the big game energy requirements, but unfortunately with the wrong type of powder.

The rifle from Shiloh arrived in the mail in the spring of 2008, and this article describes the first loads I tested. I'll begin with the components I used for loading the cartridges.


Another advantage with the .45-70 is that it is a popular calibre both among black powder and modern shooters. This means that the selection of available reloading components is good and the prices are low. Brass from Winchester, Remington and Starline are the most common brands here in Norway. The brass varies from brand to brand. The Remington brass has thickest case walls and has therefore less volume compared to the other two brands. Winchester brass is thinnest and has most powder capacity. The Remington cases may be more durable compared to the Winchester brass, but I prefer Winchester because I can get more powder into their cases.

Before loading the brass it was full length resized, trimmed to 2.1" length, the neck was deburred inside and out, the case neck was annealed and the mouth was flared to .457". Many .45-70 die sets have .454" expander plugs and these are meant for smokeless loadings where copper jacketed .457" bullets are used. The expander plug should be about .002" below the bullet diameter, and most .45-70 shooters use bullets with a diameter of .458" or .459".

Bullet and bullet mould

Model 1874 Sharps

Loading components.

Model 1874 Sharps

Reloading tools.

It may not be an easy task to select the correct .45-70 bullet, because there is a wide range of available moulds. I was recommended to try a bullet mould made by Steve Brooks. He makes moulds for many Shiloh Sharps shooters, and I ordered a .459", 540 grains Paul Jones Creedmoor mould custom made by Brooks. You do not have to go the custom way, because most commercial mould manufacturers make bullet moulds that can be used for the .45-70 loaded with black powder. The Lyman 457125 is a copy of the original .45-70 Government bullet used by the US Army from about 1881, and it will probably work well in most rifles. I selected my bullet based on the rifling twist, rifling depth and area of use. My Shiloh has a bore diameter of .450" and the groove diameter is .458", while the twist is 1:18". With this configuration the 540 grains Creedmoor bullet should do well at least out to 600 metres.

I have tested three different alloys (pure lead/tin): 30:1, 25:1 and 20:1. I have used bullets cast with the 30:1 alloy with success, but I have to experiment more to see what works best for me.

The bullets are sized and lubricated in a Lyman Lubrisizer. The sizing die is .459" and the bullets are lubricated with SPG bullet lube.

It should be mentioned that in the heyday of the Sharps rifles paper patched bullets were the most common projectile used. Paper patching is a science in itself that may prove very accurate, and it is in my opinion more challenging compared to using grease groove bullets. Paper patched bullets will be tried and tested when I get time and inspiration. In some of my other rifles paper patched bullets are superior to grease groove bullets.


We only have two available black powder brands in Norway: Wano and Swiss. Wano P, PP or PPP can all be used, and the same applies to Swiss #3, #4, and #5. Thus far I have only experimented with Swiss #4 (1.5 Fg). This is a powder which is developed for black powder cartridges, and I felt it was natural to start with this brand and granulation.

I measure the loads with a Lyman No. 55 powder measure designed for black powder, control weigh the charges on a scale, and compress the powder with the vibrations from an electric shaver .

Primers and wads

By experimenting with different primers you can actually improve your groups considerably. You can vary between magnum primers and regular primers or pistol primers and rifle primers, as well as different primer brands such as Federal, Winchester, Remington and CCI. In almost all my black powder cartridge rifles I use Federal #215 Large Rifle Magnum Primers, but Federal #155 Large Pistol Magnum Primers have also performed quite well. I always use a newspaper wad between the primer and the powder. A sheet of newspaper is placed between the primer and the base of the case when you prime the case. I don't know whether the newspaper wad improves accuracy, but it has become a habit to use it.

I also use wads between the powder and the bullet. I have used milk carton wads which are 0.5 mm (.019") thick, but I have also experimented with slightly thicker cardboard wads. Between the bullet and the last wad I always place a newspaper wad to prevent the other wads from sticking to the bullet in flight.


Model 1874 Sharps

Sharps Vernier sight

Model 1874 Sharps

10 shot group.

During the 1870s and 1880s the original Sharps rifles could be delivered with open sights, tang peep sights or telescopic sights. My rifle is equipped with a semi-buckhorn rear sight, a #108 Sharps Mid Range tang sight made by Montana Vintage Arms with 200 MOA elevation and 28 MOA windage, and a Montana Vintage Arms #113 Sharps low profile front globe with spirit level. The front sight comes with a set of inserts that can be switched. You can select from aperture, post, or crosshairs. I have also invested in a Hadley eye cup that allows me to switch size of the peep holes easily. The buckhorn sight is never used and is more in the way than useful, so I'm considering removing it. I have never seen MVA sights used in Norway, but in my opinion they are good quality and affordable sights.


This section is written based on about 150 fired shots. The first test shots were fired at 120 metres (131 yards) against the regular 50 metre UIT pistol target which is used for 100 metre competitions in Norway. I set a baseline with 62 grains of Swiss #4, Winchester brass and the 540 grains Creedmoor bullet cast with a 30:1 alloy. The bullets are sized and lubricated as described above. I experimented with different primers (Federal #215 and #155), wads and varied the charges to +/- one grain.

I shot 10 shot groups from a rest. The accuracy was acceptable from the first load I tried. It seems like the Shiloh Sharps is fully capable of consistently putting 10 shots in less than 2" at 120 yards quite easily. I used a blow tube between each shot; three long breaths before chambering a new cartridge. The picture to the right shows the best group.

I also tried a batch of cartridges that was loaded without any wad between the powder and the bullet. This has worked well for me in the 12 mm Remington rolling block ,but in my Sharps rifle these rounds had the poorest accuracy. The reason may be that I wipe between each shot in the Remington, while in the Sharps I use a blow tube.

So far I have used the Sharps in one competition arranged by my local black powder club. Here we used the rather large 200 metre French military target and the distance was short: about 80 metres (87 yards). I was lucky enough to score 100 points out of 100 possible. The black was large, so I decided to use the crosshair insert in the front globe, which obviously worked well. Below you can see a movie clip from the competition. As you can see we shoot from the prone position without cross-sticks.

The movie clips shows the seventh shot. The Norwegian dialogue is as follows (I hope you like movies with action, not dialogue!):

Me: 'You don't have to hold it in. Is it running?'

Camera man: 'Yes, I think so'.

Me: ‘Ok’.

The Shiloh Model 1874 No. 3 Sporter with MVA sights is an excellent rifle, both when it comes to quality and accuracy. In time, the accuracy will improve as I get to experiment more with loads and get used to the rifle. It is costly because of the import and export costs and time-consuming because of the paperwork to import a Shiloh to Norway, but I have not once regretted doing it. Some day I may even get to hunt buffalo with it. Time will show.

Sources and literature

Sellers, Frank M.: Sharps Firearms, ISBN: 0960812202
Venturino, Mike: Shooting Buffalo Rifles of the Old West, MLV Enterprises (2002), ISBN: B000H7NBAM